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There are three treasures in the northeast: ginseng, mink, and uran grass. Ginseng is also known as yellow ginseng, goblin, and divine grass. It is called "the king of all herbs". Ginseng likes a cool and humid climate, and is mainly distributed in the mountainous areas of eastern Liaoning and Jilin. The Changbai Mountains and the near-district mountainous areas in Heilongjiang and the forest areas in the Daxing'an Mountains of Heilongjiang, of which the output of Jilin Province accounts for about 70% of the total output. Ginseng can be divided into wild ginseng and garden ginseng. Wild ginseng is called "mountain ginseng", which mostly grows in rare virgin forests where broad-leaved forest and coniferous forest are mixed; Garden ginseng, that is, artificially cultivated ginseng, also known as "Ginseng".

The time required to grow ginseng is:

It usually blooms in 3 years and bears fruit in 5-6 years. The flowering period is May-June and the fruiting period is June-September.

Ginseng growing environment:

Ginseng is a perennial herb, prefers shade, leaves without stomata and palisade tissue, can not retain water, the temperature is higher than 32 degrees, the leaves will burn, and the canopy density is 0.7-0.8. It mostly grows under the climatic conditions with an average temperature of -23-5°C in January and 20-26°C in July. It has strong cold resistance and can withstand a low temperature of -40°C. The optimum temperature for growth is 15-25°C. Ginseng likes cool and humid climates. Like oblique and diffuse light, avoid strong light and high temperature. The soil is required to be well-drained, loose, fertile, brown forest soil with deep humus layer or mountain ash brown forest soil, and the pH value of the soil is 5.5-6.2.

1. Planting time

Ginseng can be sown from April to May every year. However, ginseng seeds need to be pre-germinated before planting, that is, in February and March, the seeds with healthy growth and full particles are soaked in water, buried in the sand, and can be sown after the seeds germinate.

2. Planting soil

Ginseng is suitable for growing in soils with rich trace elements and good drainage. In the process of planting, humus soil with rich organic matter content and loose soil can be used as the base soil. Renovation treatment to improve soil permeability. The cultivation of Changbai Mountain ginseng requires humus soil, imitating the wild environment.

3. Planting method

When planting ginseng, the germinated seeds can be sown evenly in the soil and covered with fine soil.

After sowing, it can provide non-polluting natural water for ginseng and soak all the soil, so that ginseng seeds can germinate and grow as soon as possible.

4. Post management

In the process of later management of ginseng, it is necessary to provide it with decomposed farmyard manure or NPK compound fertilizer every other month to improve the growth rate of ginseng. , to help plants save nutrients.


Ginseng loves fertilizer, so we must choose well-rotted farmyard manure as the base fertilizer. I am afraid that the uncomposted manure and the soil after fertilization will lack water and fertilizer, which will cause the roots to burn and rot. Organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer are mixed. In the process of topdressing, increase the application of phosphorus fertilizer And calcium, magnesium and sulfur fertilizers, etc., and the demand is increasing year by year. During the period of ginseng root expansion and weight gain, the absorption of potassium is large, and potassium and phosphorus fertilizers are mainly required.


Fertilizer characteristics

1. In the early stage, from the emergence of ginseng to the leaf-expanding stage, the required nutrients are mainly supplied by the ginseng root itself, and the early fertilization is mainly foliar spraying.

2. In the mid-term, when ginseng blooms to the red fruit period, the absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients reaches the peak period. It is necessary to apply sufficient base fertilizer and reasonable top dressing to ensure the timely supply of nutrients.

3. The late stage is the late stage of red fruit and before harvesting, which is the period of ginseng root expansion and weight gain, and the absorption of potassium is the largest. Attention should be paid to the application of potassium fertilizer and phosphorus fertilizer and calcium fertilizer.

Ginseng is a perennial perennial plant with strict requirements on fertilizers. After expert research, it was found that it is a potassium-loving plant, and its absorption of potassium is much greater than that of nitrogen and phosphorus, which means that potassium is an important factor in determining whether ginseng is high-yield. And with the increase of growth years, 4-5-year-old ginseng has the highest requirement for nutrients.

Nitrogen can promote the formation of chlorophyll and the growth of stems and leaves, making ginseng develop robustly; phosphorus can promote the development of ginseng root system, make the grain plump, and enhance cold resistance, drought resistance and salinity resistance; chasing potassium can improve photosynthesis, enhance stems, promote Root system development, delay senescence, increase yield and quality. But it should be used in a reasonable proportion.

The ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium required for ginseng is roughly 4:1:6. Different varieties require different ratios of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. For example, ginseng needs nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium ratio of 4:1:7, while American ginseng needs nitrogen and phosphorus. The ratio of potassium is 8:1:3. In addition, trace elements such as calcium, magnesium, sulfur, zinc, and iron can not be ignored.

The sources of NPK in this ratio include available nutrients and available nutrients that we need to apply. The characteristics of soil fertilizer supply in the main ginseng producing areas are as follows: high content of total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen, and high content of total phosphorus, but lack of available phosphorus and moderate or insufficient available potassium. Therefore, experts put forward a plan to control nitrogen fertilizer and increase potassium fertilizer. Since phosphorus is easily fixed in the soil, the application amount of phosphorus should be increased, which is why the content of phosphorus in the three elements is much greater than that of nitrogen. The three-element fertilizer with high phosphorus and potassium content with N, P, K ratio of 10-23-12 can just meet the needs of ginseng growth and development.


During fertilization,

1. Base fertilizer

The base fertilizer of ginseng is mainly based on organic fertilizer, which has long fertilizer effect, complete nutrients, and has the effect of improving soil. Some delayed-acting inorganic fertilizers, such as diammonium phosphate, three-material phosphate fertilizer, and superphosphate, can also be used as base fertilizers. According to the time and method of fertilization, basal fertilizers can be divided into 2 types.

1. Improvement of soil and fertilizer Use of barren hills and wasteland to plant ginseng should be modified with soil and fertilizer, and ginseng planted in farmland must be modified with soil and fertilizer. For ginseng cultivation in farmland, pig manure, compost, green manure, deer manure, peat, oil cake, plant ash, old wall soil, kang cave soil, etc. are used as base fertilizer or top dressing. The application of organic fertilizers must be fully decomposed. Peat charcoal can increase ginseng root yield by 71.6%, and compost and plant ash can increase ginseng root yield by 33%-35%. The method is to plant green manure crops in the year before planting ginseng (returning the soil in the hot season), and ploughing once in late autumn; or plan the soil one year before planting ginseng, and apply organic fertilizer when preparing the land; or in the spring of the year when ginseng is planted. Apply organic fertilizer, after a summer of leisure management and overturning, so that the manure is evenly mixed in the soil and fully decomposed, and ginseng can be grown in the autumn.

2. Base fertilizer Apply fertilizer to the soil when making bed line, making furrow or sowing and transplanting. In the case of manure shortage, this is a more economical method. The specific method is to spread the fertilizer evenly into the line after making the bed hanging line, pour it into the soil, flatten it, and then sow and cover the soil. After turning the planted ground to make the bed hanging line, open the groove and spread the fertilizer evenly into the groove, mix it with the soil thoroughly, then cover with a layer of soil without fertilizer, put the ginseng on it, and then cover it with soil.

The base fertilizer should use organic fertilizer and decomposed manure as much as possible, and compound fertilizer can also be used. When using base fertilizer, in order to prevent soil-borne diseases and repeated cropping problems, microbial inoculants can be mixed to adjust the soil and prevent the occurrence of diseases.

The base fertilizers commonly used in production are decomposed fallen leaves (10~15kg per square meter), cake fertilizer (0.05~0.15 kg per square meter), green manure (15~20 kg per square meter), suzi (fried 0.05~0.15 kg per square meter) Rice and composted 5406 bacterial fertilizer (0.5kg per square meter) are better. When necessary, mix with superphosphate (0.05~0.15 kg per square meter) and boron and magnesium fertilizer (0.05~0.15 kg per square meter) and so on. Adjust measures to local conditions, choose suitable organic fertilizers, and determine a reasonable amount.


2. Topdressing

Top dressing is in the process of ginseng growth, usually in the spring.

If you use solid fertilizer (organic fertilizer, compound fertilizer), open a 6-8 cm deep ditch between the rows, spread the fertilizer evenly into the ditch, cover with soil and cover with grass, and then water.

If high-quality water-soluble fertilizer is applied, water-soluble fertilizer can be used in conjunction with watering of ginseng seedlings. If fruit expansion is required, high-potassium water-soluble fertilizer can be used to quickly replenish potassium and calcium and magnesium and other medium and trace elements to promote fruit expansion. .

Apply the fertilizer to the root side or spray it on the stems and leaves. Inorganic fertilizers are generally used as top dressing, and can also be used in conjunction with organic fertilizers. There are two types of top dressing, root top dressing and foliar top dressing, according to the application site of top dressing.

1. Commonly used fertilizers for top dressing on the root side include fried suzi (0.05 kg/m2), cake fertilizer (0.05kg/m2), superphosphate (0.05~0.15 kg/m2), degummed bone meal (0.1kg/m3), trace elements ( 0.01~0.02 kg/m²), etc., in the spring, before and after the leaves will be loosened, and the 6-year-old ginseng will be ditched between the rows. , do not overwater. After watering, gently loosen the soil, and then cover the border with fallen leaves or straw to preserve fertilizer and water.

2. Foliar top dressing Spray liquid fertilizer evenly on the leaves to absorb nutrients through the leaves to achieve the purpose of fertilizing and increasing production. Phosphorus fertilizer application promotes the emergence and flowering, the red ripening period of the fruit is advanced, and the withering is delayed, and the yield of ginseng root can be increased by about 30%. This method has low cost and high efficiency. Commonly used foliar top dressings are mostly inorganic fertilizers, such as 2% superphosphate, 0.2% urea, 0.2%~0.5% zinc sulfate, 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.01%~0.02% boric acid, 0.2% potassium permanganate , compound fertilizers, growth regulators and bacterial fertilizers. Generally, spray once each at the later stage of leaf spreading, the green fruit stage and the later stage of red ripening of the fruit.

Fertilizer quantity

Determining the amount of ginseng to be fertilized is a complex issue that depends on factors such as ginseng age, soil type, soil fertility, and type of fertilizer. As the growth years increase, the amount of fertilizer required also increases. It was determined that:

Annual ginseng needs 8.4 mg of nitrogen, 2.9 mg of phosphorus, and 11.6 mg of potassium per plant, totaling 22.9 mg.

Two-year-old ginseng requires 4 to 5 times of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium than one-year-old ginseng.

Third-year students are 2.5-3.5 times as many as second-year students.

Four-year students are 2.5-3.5 times as many as three-year students.

Five-year students are 1.2-1.5 times that of four-year students.

Six-year students are 1.2-1.5 times as many as five-year students.