Seaweed and Seaweed Fertilizers


Recently, "natural plant (biological) stimulants" have suddenly become popular, covering alginic acid, humic acid, amino acids, astaxanthin, biological bacteria and other types. There are multiple functions such as fertilizer utilization rate and high yield, among which seaweed extract bears the brunt and is particularly conspicuous. Many companies in the market have launched various types of seaweed fertilizers at the same time. use and efficacy in .

First, variety of seaweed

There are about 2,100 genera and 27,000 species of algae. Seaweed is divided into red algae, brown algae, green algae and other categories. According to the water temperature, it is divided into: warm water species, warm water species and cold water species. For the nutrients, we conduct a simple analysis based on several raw material varieties currently used as seaweed fertilizers.

1. Green algae and prolifera on the sea surface, which grow on the sea surface, are due to the eutrophication of the near-land ocean due to human activities. After the temperature rises in summer, the flocculent green algae growing on the sea surface have a short growth period and are perishable. They are used in Fertilizers have low nutritional value.

2. The kelp, a type of brown algae, in the shallow seas is mostly artificially cultured, and its vitality is significantly stronger than that of planktonic algae on the sea surface.

3. Warm water and warm water deep sea algae, such as sargassum and macroalgae.

4. High latitude deep sea with very low water temperature, wild seaweed, such as Ascophyllum nodosum. It grows with little light and low temperature, and has a very strong vitality.

Although they are both raw materials for seaweed fertilizers, different algae species, different seawater depths, and different latitude and longitude temperature zones of the sea have different growth cycles. The algae grown in the deep sea, low light, low temperature and high salt environment have stronger photosynthesis ability, enrichment and absorption ability, and resistance to stress and low temperature, and the richer the nutrition, function and active substances.

Second, the production extraction process is less classified

At present, there are three main methods of seaweed extraction for fertilizers: one is chemical extraction, which involves strong acid (or strong alkali) and high temperature during the extraction process, which will damage some of the original active substances in the seaweed during the extraction process; The second is the physical extraction method (mechanical crushing method), which is less destructive, but the final extracted nutrients are mainly in the form of macromolecules, which are not suitable for the absorption and utilization of crops; the third is the biological enzymatic hydrolysis method, which is achieved by using more It uses enzymatic hydrolysis to extract active substances and nutrients in seaweed, and at the same time degrades polysaccharides into oligosaccharides, which is convenient for crop absorption and utilization. This method has high technical requirements and high cost.

Third,Why is seaweed extract amazing?

1. It grows in the deep sea with little sunlight, high salt and low temperature for many years. The light intensity at a depth of 100 meters in the ocean is only 1% of the water surface. Therefore, it has the ability of photosynthesis, and it grows at low temperature. It has special frost resistance and low temperature resistance. Genes, when used in crops, can quickly improve the efficiency of photosynthesis, enhance the ability of nutrient absorption and transformation, and have the functions of antifreeze and antifreeze.

2. Seaweed grows in the environment of high pressure and extremely harsh tides, and its vitality is tenacious. After the crops are used, they have the ability to resist disease, waterlogging, stress, continuous cropping, and external adversity and environmental regulation, which greatly improves the immunity of crops.

3. In order to cope with harsh environments such as insufficient light, high salt, high pressure, low temperature, and scarce nutrients in the deep sea, seaweed has strong enrichment, adsorption and chelation capabilities, and can quickly enrich nutrients in seawater. Seaweed extracts contain terrestrial crops. seaweed polysaccharides (algin, fucoidan, fucoidan, etc.), growth stimulating hormones (cytokinin, auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid, indole acetic acid, polyphenols, and other natural ingredients, etc.), mannitol, Betaine, alginic acid, unsaturated fatty acids, organic iodine, vitamins, 14 kinds of medium and trace elements and more than 80 kinds of minerals, unique plant homeostasis regulators, allow various nutrients to enter the plant body, and activate various nutrients in the plant body. The activity of various enzymes accelerates absorption and conduction, and the effective utilization of nutrients is greatly improved.

Introduction to seaweed fertilizer

Seaweed fertilizer is a kind of fertilizer that is produced and processed by marine brown algae or mixed with a certain amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and medium and trace elements. The market is mainly based on liquid and powder, and a small part is in granular state.

One, complete nutrition

In addition to the expensive marine organic algae potassium, seaweed potassium also contains 18 kinds of protein amino acids such as seaweed extract (Seaweed extract), green algae polysaccharide, protein, amino acid, carbohydrate, etc. Plant growth regulators (auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, etc.) with significant effects, alginic acid, humic acid, vitamins, nucleotides, plant stress resistance factors, and trace elements nitrogen, sulfur, Calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese and other elements, all these biologically active substances are pure natural substances extracted from seaweed, no pungent chemical smell, slight seaweed smell, no residue. Compared with chemical fertilizers, it has outstanding advantages in terms of yield increase, stress resistance, naturalness and no toxic side effects.

Two,High and long-lasting fertilizer efficiency

Seaweed potassium is ① rich in active substances and ② added with fast-reacting bioactive agents, which can interact with the root system of crops, and scientifically adjust according to the needs of crops for various nutrients to meet the nutritional needs of crops. After using seaweed potassium, the stems are strong , The root system is developed, the leaves are dark green, the seeds are full, the lodging resistance, the premature aging resistance, the good quality and the high yield.

Three,Resistance to diseases, bacteria and insect pests

Potassium seaweed can resist pests and diseases, inhibit bacteria, and prevent dead seedlings. It has obvious control effects on cotton verticillium wilt, red leaf stem blight, wheat yellow leaf disease, rice blast, etc., and has resistance to various crop diseases and insect pests.

Fourth, improve soil strength

Seaweed potassium allows crops to fully absorb various nutrients, significantly improves fertilizer utilization, prevents soil compaction, loosens and activates soil, and improves soil fertility.

Marine brown algae contain many kinds of substances. The main active substances that have been studied in seaweed and seaweed plant growth regulators (hereinafter referred to as SWCs) are as follows:

1 Cytokinin

Cytokinins are cytokinins, which are a class of purine derivatives with physiological activity. The role is to speed up cell division and promote plant growth; (Purine 44), is a substance existing in the body, mainly in the form of purine nucleotides, in the human body purine is oxidized to become uric acid, and excessive uric acid in the human body will cause cause gout)

As early as 1969, Jennings studied the content of endogenous cytokinin in brown algae such as kelp and red algae such as cabbage and its role as a plant growth regulator. Algae are also considered as adsorbents in the ocean, and cytokinins in algae and SWC can respond to most crops, and the detection of cytokinin activity in several SWC products confirms this view. This commercial SWC product contains t-zeatin, t-zeatin riboside, isopentenyladenosine and other concentrated cytokinin glycosides.

2 Growth hormone

Existing studies have shown that auxin has the effect of stimulating root development and cold resistance of crops. When cutting plants are treated with it, the survival rate can be greatly improved. The most common auxin is indoleacetic acid. Many seaweeds themselves contain auxins and auxin-like substances. In addition to IAA, some SWC products also contain indole carboxylic acid (ICA), N,N-dimethyl B-indolylethylamine, indoleacetaldehyde (IAId), isoindole and 1,3 -Indole (N-hydroxyethylphthalimide) and the like.

3 gibberellin

Gibberellin has the effect of promoting plant germination, growth, flowering and fruiting.

Although a variety of seaweeds have been shown to contain gibberellin analogs, their levels in commercial SWC products have not been definitively detected, which may be the reason why the gibberellins in the seaweed are destroyed during processing. A freshly prepared commercial SWC product was found to have gibberellin activity.

4 Abscisic acid

Abscisic acid (ABA), also known as abscisic acid, is a plant growth inhibitor, which can promote the maturation of plant abscission cells and cause organ shedding. Abscisic acid and gibberellin have antagonism (antagonism is that some elements have the effect of inhibiting the absorption of other elements by crops, which means that different hormones have opposite effects on a certain physiological effect)

5 ethylene

The role of ethylene in plant growth is to reduce the growth rate and promote early fruit ripening. Ethylene can promote the synthesis of RNA and proteins, increase the permeability of cell membranes, and accelerate respiration. Therefore, when the ethylene content in the fruit increases, the synthesized auxin can be decomposed by the enzyme in the plant or the outside light, which can promote the transformation of organic matter and accelerate the ripening of the fruit. There are few international studies on ethylene in seaweed.

6 betaine

Betaine is a derivative of amino acid or imino acid, which can greatly increase the content of plant chlorophyll at very low concentration. About 18 betaine species are found in seaweed, most of which are glycine betaine, B-alanine betaine, r-aminobutyric acid betaine, etc.

7 polyamines

Polyamines are a group of compounds that act like auxins. They are not classified as plant hormones. They are plant growth factors that promote fertilization, play an important role in plant flower bud differentiation and embryonic development, and delay plant senescence, which is beneficial to fruit. Storage and preservation after maturity, detoxification by conversion into alkaloids; polyamines can widely affect the physiological growth process of plants, so these compounds in SWC products have to be considered. There have been no reports of polyamines in commercial SWC products.

8 alginic acid

Alginic acid: It can reduce the surface tension of water, making its active ingredients very stable, easy to store, and easy to use; it is very conducive to the absorption and utilization of various nutrients by plants, and ensures that various nutrients are in an effective state;

9 seaweed polysaccharides

Seaweed polysaccharide: It can not only chelate heavy metal ions, but also increase soil air permeability. This soil air conditioning effect makes the soil not easy to be eroded and lost by wind and water. Its unique stress resistance greatly reduces the application amount of pesticides;

10 Quinone groups and polyphenols

Quinone group and polyphenol: Combined with humate, it participates in the redox reaction of crops, significantly improves the activity of sugar invertase and the synthesis of phosphorus-containing organic compounds, and greatly increases the sugar content of melons, fruits and vegetables. It can also extend the storage period of melons and fruits by 10 to 30 days, and extend the flowering period by about 40 days;

11 Mannitol

Mannitol: It can greatly increase the water absorption capacity and chlorophyll content of crops, and the leaf area increases by more than 10%.

In recent years, my country's seaweed fertilizers have developed by leaps and bounds, and the main production enterprises are concentrated in the Shandong Peninsula area: such as Ocean University of China Bioengineering Development Co., Ltd., Qingdao Mingyue Seaweed Group Co., Ltd., Qingdao Juyang Seaweed Group, etc.

Seaweed fertilizer is a bio-fertilizer made of marine plant seaweed as the main raw material and scientifically processed. Mineral nutrients, including seaweed polysaccharides, phenolic polymers, mannitol, betaine, plant growth regulators (cytokinin, gibberellin, auxin, and abscisic acid, etc.) and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and iron , boron, molybdenum, iodine and other trace elements. In addition, in order to increase the fertilizer efficiency and the chelation effect of the fertilizer, an appropriate amount of humic acid and an appropriate amount of trace elements are also dissolved.

History and application of seaweed fertilizer

Alginic acid foliar fertilizers were first produced in Great Britain in 1949.

Foliar fertilization is also known as root external application (topdressing) fertilizer, that is, through foliar spraying to supplement the nutrient elements needed by plants, which plays the role of regulating plant growth, supplementing missing elements, preventing premature aging and increasing yield.

With the advantages of quickly supplying nutrients, avoiding the adsorption and fixation of nutrients by the soil, and improving the utilization rate of fertilizers, top dressing outside the roots is more and more popular among lawn caregivers, especially golf lawn caregivers. Especially under adverse conditions, the absorption function of roots is hindered, and foliar fertilization can often play a


Applied Skills

1. The spray concentration should be appropriate. Within a certain concentration range, the speed and quantity of nutrients entering the leaves increase with the increase of the solution concentration, but if the concentration is too high, fertilizer damage may occur, especially trace element fertilizers, generally large and medium elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur) The use concentration is 500 times to 600 times, and the use concentration of trace elements iron, manganese and zinc is 500 times to 1000 times.

2. The spraying time should be appropriate. When foliar fertilization, the longer the wet time, the more nutrients the leaves absorb, and the better the effect. Under normal circumstances, it is appropriate to keep the leaves moist for 30 minutes to 60 minutes. Therefore, foliar fertilization is best carried out in the evening without wind; spraying fertilizer in the morning with dew will reduce the concentration of the solution and affect the effect of fertilization. Foliar topdressing cannot be carried out on rainy days or before rain, because nutrients are easily lost by leaching, and the desired effect cannot be achieved.

3. The spraying should be uniform, meticulous and thoughtful. Foliar fertilization requires small droplets and uniform spraying, with particular attention to spraying the vigorously growing upper leaves and the back of the leaves.

4. The number of sprays should not be too small, and there should be intervals. The concentration of foliar topdressing of crops is generally low, and the amount of absorption per time is very small, which is much lower than the demand of crops. Therefore, the frequency of foliar fertilization should generally not be less than 2 to 3 times, the interval should be at least one week or more, and the number of spraying should not be too many to prevent harm.

5. The foliar fertilizer should be used properly. When foliar topdressing, mixing two or more foliar fertilizers reasonably can save spraying time and labor, and its yield increase effect will be more significant. However, after the fertilizer is mixed, there must be no adverse reaction or reduce the fertilizer efficiency, otherwise the purpose of mixing will not be achieved. In addition, pay attention to the concentration and pH of the solution when mixing fertilizers. Under normal circumstances, the pH value of the solution is around 7, which is conducive to leaf absorption under neutral conditions.

6. Add wetting agent to the fertilizer solution. Crop leaves have a layer of cuticle with different thicknesses, and it is difficult for the solution to penetrate. For this reason, an appropriate amount of wetting agent and surfactant can be added to the leaf fertilizer solution to increase the surface tension, increase the contact area with the leaves, and improve the leaves. The effect of top dressing.

Finally, two points must be highlighted.

1. According to the results of a large number of field experiments, the effect of foliar fertilization is more likely to appear under the stress of growth factors (nutrition, climate, water) on plants.

2. Root fertilization is a fundamental fertilization measure, and root fertilization is an auxiliary fertilization measure, which cannot be put upside down.